In the advertising world, images of men and women are used to promote products of all kinds. Each of us is enculturated. This is a lifelong process in which our identities are formed. Through enculturation we learn many things. Not least, perhaps, we learn gendered identities of what it is to be a man or a woman, and we learn those behaviours that, broadly speaking, society encourages, sanctions, or condemns. It is through language that a great deal of enculturation occurs. Language works to reflect social life, but it also exists as a social fact to construct it. This is not, of course, to suggest that enculturation wholly determines individual identity, or to deny the possibility of cultural change.
You arguably might expect images of the body to be used in advertisements for, say, beauty products or cosmetics. But the bodies of men and women are used to sell a far wider range of items, from alcohol, to cars, to household appliances! In this section we are going to focus on the way adverts create representations of both men and women, and see how the repetition of these images can shape cultural values and expectations about what it means to be a man or a woman, and shape our unrealistic perceptions of beauty and sex too.
In Tough Guise: Violence, Media and the Crisis in Masculinity, Jackson Katz and Jeremy Earp argue that the media provide an important perspective on social attitudes – and that while the media are not the cause of violent behaviour in men and boys, they do portray male violence as a normal expression of masculinity.
In 1999, Children Now, a California-based organization that examines the impact of media on children and youth, released a report entitled Boys to Men: Media Messages About Masculinity (see below for full article). The report argues that the media’s portrayal of men tends to reinforce men’s social dominance. The report observes that: the majority of male characters in media are heterosexual; male characters are more often associated with the public sphere of work, rather than the private sphere of the home; non-white male characters are more likely to experience personal problems and are more likely to use physical aggression or violence to solve those problems.
Studying the articles and texts in this section will help us determine to what extent these stereotypes are prevalent in advertising:
- How the Media Define Masculinity (handout)
- It’s About Money and Muscles (Guardian article)
- From Lad to 4D Man (Guardian article)
Class Activity: boys to men
Skim and scan this resource, the groundbreaking 1999 Children Now conference report into how masculinity is presented in American media, and the potential messages this sends to boys about what it means to be ‘men’. Create a mind-map of the report’s findings and present them to another group in your – or another – class. Can you add examples from your own television, film and music video preferences that support any of the stereotypes in this report?
Flick through this scanned copy of GQ Magazine, from May 2020. Make notes of the ways in which the words and images in the magazine perpetuate certain representations of ‘masculinity’. Write up your findings in a one-two page journal entry.
“One is not born a woman. One becomes one.”Simone de Beauvoir
‘Sex sells” is an oft-heard adage in the advertising world, where nudity, suggestion and unrealistic models are used to promote products of all kinds. In this section you will learn how women’s bodies are repeatedly objectified, trivialized, dismembered and sexualized for mass consumption. Watch Jean Kilbourne’s excellent talk and read a couple of the articles below to understand what these terms all mean:
Class Activity: “In some ways we’ve come a long way.”
Given that the stereotypes surrounding gender in advertising are fairly well known, and often criticized, you might think that advertisers would work towards representing men and women in less stereotyped ways. In her talk above, Jean Kilbourne acknowledged that, ‘in some ways we’ve come a long way.’ And it is true that, in many cases, advertisers make a conscious effort to represent people in ways that do not rely on stereotyping. However, in other cases, the same stereotypes appear again and again in advertising. Or older stereotypes simply give way to newer ones.
Test Kilbourne’s statement for yourself. View this range of adverts taken from magazines in 2006 and 2016. Identify the stereotypes in the adverts, then compare and contrast the range of texts. Do you notice any change, development or improvement in the representation of men and women? Or do you think both sets of adverts seem to exploit stereotypes of one sort or another?
Explore a modern media text (you could use this scanned edition of Vogue Magazine; or if you feel the examples you’ve investigated so far are too western-centric, browse the international website of a global magazine brand like Cosmopolitan India for adverts, images and articles instead).
Write a hard-hitting blog about the text you have investigated in which you lay out your reaction to the advertisements, images and/or articles in the magazine. Elucidate which parts of the texts you feel are progressive (if any) and where you feel the editors and producers are still promoting stereotypes.
Area of Exploration Guiding Conceptual Question
All varieties of writing, whether they are fiction or non-fiction, ads, news reports, poems or whatever can be seen as a product of the environment in which they were produced. Writing can be affected by the political climate, major events, trends within society or what is considered acceptable or aesthetic during the writing process.
With a focus on the changing representation of women on the cover of Cosmopolitan magazine as a response to a societal shift in the way women are depicted in the magazines they read, this resource will guide you through the conceptual question:
Paper 1 Text Type Focus: magazines
At the end of your course you will be asked to analyze unseen texts (1 at Standard Level and 2 at Higher Level) in an examination. You will be given a guiding question that will focus your attention on formal or stylistic elements of the text(s), and help you decode the text(s)’ purpose(s). Below are resources and articles taken from magazines. Use these practice texts to familiarise yourself with the different features of magazines and front covers, then add them to your Learner Portfolio; you will want to revise text types thoroughly before your Paper 1 exam. You can find more information – including text type features and sample Paper 1 analysis – by visiting 20/20. Read through one or two of the exemplars, then choose a new paper and have a go at writing your own Paper 1 analysis response:
Key features of magazines
- Headline: bold text that reveals the topic of the article and should provide a hook for the reader.
- Images: photographs of people and places are common features of magazine articles. They are almost always posed, not natural, and are often as prominent as the copy.
- Layout: look out for box-outs, bullet points, ears and other kinds of layout features.
- Entertainment: although they might be topical and current, most magazine articles are designed to entertain. Information may be displayed in an appealing way, using pull quotes and subheadings.
- Buzzwords: being up-to-date, relevant and current means some articles make use of buzzwords and words that are popular at the time of publication.
- Interactive Features: increasingly, articles that would traditionally have been printed in magazines are being published online. In this case, look out for interactive features such as embedded videos, hyperlinks and tabs.
- Embedded interviews: experts on or participants in the topic at hand are often interviewed and quotations are used throughout the article. In the case of celebrity articles, the whole piece could be the write-up of an interview.
Body of Work: Dove Real Beauty
Dove is a classic brand that started in 1957 as a simple bar of soap; its brand is now synonymous with all kinds of beauty products and is an iconic family name. The Real Beauty campaign began in 2004; Dove was looking for a way to revive its sales so they tasked a PR Company, Edelman, to conduct a study of women in different countries. The study reported that only 2 percent of women considered themselves beautiful – and the executives at Dove saw a great marketing opportunity. Because they were recently beginning to introduce beauty products other than soap into their product line, Dove thought maybe they could start a conversation about beauty with their consumer base.
The Real Beauty Campaign has been enormously successful, winning many awards and generating over $4billion in revenue. To help study this campaign as a Body of Work, you can find a collection of print and billboard ads from this campaign here, as well as several video ads available at the links below:
- A PR Case Study: Dove Real Beauty Campaign (Newsgeneration.com)
- Dove (Adsoftheworld.com)
- How Dove went from moisturising to patronizing (vox.com)
Towards Assessment: Individual Oral
“Supported by an extract from one non-literary text and one from a literary work, students will offer a prepared response of 10 minutes, followed by 5 minutes of questions by the teacher, to the following prompt: Examine the ways in which the global issue of your choice is presented through the content and form of two of the texts that you have studied. (40 marks)“
Please find suggestions here; but always be mindful of your own ideas and class discussions and follow the direction of your own programme of study when devising your assessment tasks.
A print or billboard advert from this campaign – or a scene from the video campaign – would make ideal texts to bring into your Individual Oral. the named author would be Dove (or you could collect together texts produced by individual ad agencies such as Edelman). The texts fall easily into the Field of Inquiry: Beliefs, Values and Education and, by choosing this Body of Work, you are probably investigating the Global Issue of ‘Stereotypes of Men and Women’. You can consider all types of stereotypes around ‘beauty’, ‘masculinity’ or ‘femininity’, or you can go further and consider the places in society with which men and women in the mass media are often associated. There are many ways to pair these texts with a literary extract. Talk with your teacher, or use one of the following suggestions as a starting point:
- Keats’ Odes – Keats was fascinated with ideas of beauty. Ode on Melancholy presents some specific thoughts about the transient nature of beauty and On a Grecian Urn depends upon the idea that beauty and joy can only ever be opposing forces. La Belle Dame sans Merci presents a beautiful ‘femme fatale’, a literary archetype by which women seduce men and lure them to their doom… almost any poem might contain an extract you could use alongside the Real Beauty campaign.
- Shaw’s Pygmalion – the whole text is about transformation, but Shaw suggests there’s more to a person than just what you can see on the outside. An extract from acts four or five, where Liza and Mrs Higgins make this point to a stubborn Henry Higgins, might make for a good pairing.
- Angela Carter’s The Bloody Chamber – if you’re interested in stereotyping and gender, in particular the effects of the male gaze, an extract from the title short story in this collection would help you explore these ideas.
- Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife – where adverts tend to look for beauty on the outside, Duffy ventures into the minds of women, both fictional and historical, to discover what they are really made of. An attempt to counter long-held stereotypes about women, and reveal something about men as well, many poems in her collection could be successfully paired with this campaign.
- Ismail Kadare’s Broken April – Diana is a woman who has to live in a man’s world, so an extract featuring her, or what others think of her, could make a good pairing for this exercise. Alternatively, you can consider the presentation of Gjorg and Bessian in light of the ideas about masculinity you have studied in this section.
- Shen Congwen’s Border Town – Congwen’s own wife was dark skinned, so he gave the main character of his novel dark skin too. You could investigate the physical descriptions of Cuicui, and discuss in what ways she might be considered ‘beautiful’ by a Chinese – or wider – readership.