Names, exact terms and labels can serve a valuable purpose for communication in specific contexts. For example, it is good that in an operating theatre a surgeon can ask for a precise tool with an esoteric name instead of relying on vague description.
On the other hand naming, labeling and stereotyping can have a negative impact on knowledge. With over-familiar labeling we may know what to expect – and also expect all we think we know. For example, imagine a new student joins your class and they have been labeled a ‘genius.’ You will develop a kind of knowledge of that student without ever before having seen them face to face. Not only will this colour encounters you have, but this has wider repercussions: take, for example, the way the media is so quick to apply the term ‘terrorist’ to people who commit certain violent acts whether or not they amount to acts of terrorism. This section will ask you to consider the impact of naming and labeling on the way we think about the world and other people. Begin your studies by reading Names, a chapter from Bill Bryson’s book Mother Tongue, then choose a couple more articles to boost your knowledge of this topic:
- A-Town and B-Ville: A Semantic Parable
- Choosing Words Carefully
- Naming and Classification
- Scope Name Change
Class Activity: Third World or Developing Country?
Think about the term ‘Third World’, from 1963, used to describe countries at a certain stage of development. This term has recently gone out of fashion. Why do you think this is? Examine the synonyms for ‘third world’, taken from an online thesaurus. Which do you think are more acceptable? Why? What other alternatives might there be? Rank or sort the words and discuss your choices:
Read this article about Scope, a charity for disabled children, which changed its name from ‘Spastic’s Society’. Write your thoughts about this issue as an editorial. Take a stance: was Scope right or wrong to change their name? Explain the background, and argue your opinion about the importance of having the right name for the Scope charity.
Paper 1 Text Type Focus: Charity Appeals
From the TOK Newsletter: Milk Substitute
Description: “There is no such thing as soy milk. The same goes for almond, coconut, hemp, rice, cashew, hazelnut, and oat. Milk comes from mammals and there are no lactating almonds. While plant-based beverages have sought to broaden milk’s definition since the Chinese company Vitasoy entered the US market in 1979, the Food and Drug Administration still has a very specific, cow-centric, definition.”
Discussion points and exploration: Our perception of a thing’s reality is created to a large degree by the name given to it. Thus we imagine ‘soy milk’ to be some sort of diary-like product, in terms of its appearance, nutritional value, and perhaps even taste. But of course ‘soy milk’ has nothing whatsoever in common with ‘milk’. Why then is it given this name? How can we avoid being mislead in this way?
- Write a journal entry after you consider the following points raised by the article:
- What are the most popular ‘milk alternatives’?
- Does the connotation or the denotation of a word convey its meaning?
- To what extent do names of products conceal their true nature?
Categories:Readers, Writers, Texts