Societies have developed a plethora of words and expressions to deal with taboo subjects: either to avoid mentioning them at all, or to smooth the rough edges of reality. Religion was one of the first English taboos, but it certainly wasn’t the last. Take the subject of death. It’s the only thing certain in life (apart from, as Benjamin Franklin memorably said, ‘taxes’) – but we’re very reluctant to use this powerful taboo word. Instead we say passed away, passed on, given up the ghost, gone to meet the maker, shuffled off this mortal coil – even kicked the bucket! Similarly, we are reluctant to talk directly about health issues that may be chronic or terminal, sexual encounters, and race or ethnicity; all are subjects that may prompt us to reach for the thesaurus. Read Uses and Abuses, which could act as a primer for this whole section, then choose a selection of the following articles to find out about the most powerful taboos in the English language:
- Uses and Abuses (extract from Planet Word)
- The Clearing House (research paper)
- Reclaiming Butch (Guardian article)
- Death Be Not Allowed (Newsweek article)
- Let’s Talk About Sex (magazine article)
- Can We Stop Saying “Retarded” Yet? (Slate article)
- Why it’s Worse To Be Called Fat Than Sworn At (Daily Mail article)
Class Activity 1: Loaded Terms
‘Arguing in Bad Faith‘ examines the claim of one thinker that Notre-Dame was built on ‘Judeo-Christian’ heritage, and the reasons why this is completely invalid. Instead, it shows how this term has developed over time (after the war, it was a term of tolerance and diversity; more recently – ironically – it has been adopted by a more right-wing coalition of users). Read the article, look at the way in which the term ‘Judeo-Christian’ has evolved over time, and discuss the following questions to help you understand how a word or term can be ‘politicised’ or ‘weaponised’ by one side of a debate against another:
- What is a loaded term?
- How does the evolution of language shift our ideas about concepts?
- To what extent do our personal biases affect the way we communicate, the language we use?
Politically correct language is language used to avoid causing offence when speaking about and around taboo subjects. You might find examples of politically correct language, or euphemisms, in one or two of the articles above. Create your own article called ‘Let’s Talk About…’ Choose a taboo topic, such as religion, health, war, relationships, sexuality, or even the ultimate taboo – mortality. Research the history of this taboo and present ways in which people use language to talk about – or around! – the topic.
Paper 1 Text Type Focus: interviews
At the end of your course you will be asked to analyse unseen texts (1 at Standard Level and 2 at Higher Level) in an examination. You will be given a guiding question that will focus your attention on formal or stylistic elements of the text(s), and help you decode the text(s)’ purpose(s). Below are examples of Interviews; study these texts and add them to your Learner Portfolio; you will want to revise text types thoroughly before your Paper 1 exam. You can find more information – including text type features and sample Paper 1 analysis – by visiting 20/20. Read through one or two of the exemplars, then choose a new paper and have a go at writing your own Paper 1 analysis response:
- Question-Answer: a recognisable feature of interviews in this format, which presents the questions asked and responses using quotations (direct speech).
- Register: as a record of a spoken conversation, a written interview is likely to contain examples of language that is more like speech. Look out for colloquialisms, idioms, contractions and even jokes.
- Quotation: as an alternative to the question-answer format, you might see interviews written up as a magazine article. In this case you will see a mixture of direct quotation and indirect free speech.
- Topics: the interview may be focused on one issue or may range across various topics. Look out for the interviewer asking leading questions to take the conversation in a particular direction.
- Perspective: the interview presents a one-sided view on a topic or person, so is likely to be highly subjective. The interviewee may use assertive statements which present opinions as if they are facts.
- Them-and-us: celebrity interviews tend to put interviewees on a pedestal. Look for ways in which the text creates a divide between celebrities and ‘us’, the reader, or represents the interviewee as special in some way.
Body of Work: Oliviero Toscani’s United Colours of Benetton Adverts
In April 2000, United Colors of Benetton fired its director of photography Oliviero Toscani over his advertising campaign entitled “Looking Death in the Face” in which he featured the portrait photographs of inmates on deathrow as adverts for a retail clothing brand. At the time, Rory Carroll of The Observer speculated that Toscani “almost certainly will never again reach a worldwide audience on the scale of his Benetton billboards” but it seemed that he had spoken a little prematurely. In 2017, Toscani rejoined Benetton once again, along with Luciano Benetton, the founder.
For 18 years Toscani had been pushing the limits of advertising. From AIDS victims, to the bloodstains of a dead soldier, homosexual relationships, mixed race relationships, LGBTQ+ representation – Toscani shied away from nothing and produced some of the most controversial adverts in history. With each campaign came a new round of backlash, censorship – and press attention. After all, there’s no such thing as bad publicity! But this final campaign, released in January 2000 depicting death row inmates staring blankly into the camera behind the slogan, SENTENCED TO DEATH, proved to be Toscani’s undoing. Murder victims’ families spoke out, retailers and consumers dropped the brand, and sales consequently plummeted. An accusation that had been levelled at Toscani before – ‘what has this got to do with clothing?’ – was suddenly too loud to ignore.
In this Body of Work, you can explore some of Oliviero Toscani’s most provocative ad campaigns for United Colors of Benetton and investigate how these texts break social and cultural taboos. The images and explainers in the Body of Work have been compiled from articles in Vogue and The Guardian. You can research more Benetton advertising here as well:
- United Colours of Benetton Campaign Archives (Historical Adverts)
- All the Colours of the World (Oliviero Toscani Campaigns)
- United by Half (Benetton’s upcoming Indian campaign)
- Hunger (an interview with a Benetton photographer)
- ‘La Pieta’ AIDS Campaign (online article)
Towards Assessment: Individual Oral
“Supported by an extract from one non-literary text and one from a literary work, students will offer a prepared response of 10 minutes, followed by 5 minutes of questions by the teacher, to the following prompt: Examine the ways in which the global issue of your choice is presented through the content and form of two of the texts that you have studied. (40 marks)“IB Language and Literature Guide
Please find suggestions here; but always be mindful of your own ideas and class discussions and follow the direction of your own programme of study when devising your assessment tasks.
One or two of these images would be a perfect text to use in this assessed activity. The named author would be ‘Oliviero Toscani’ or ‘United Colours of Benetton’. The adverts here connect very well to the Field of Inquiry of Art, Creativity and Imagination as they present images of real people in an artistic way. You could explore the Global Issue of ‘the role of creative individuals in society’. The suggestions below are ideas you may like to consider, although you should speak with your teacher before you get too far ahead:
- Shaw’s Pygmalion – take as your starting point the idea that Oliviero Toscana is a real-life version of Henry Higgins. You can ask to what extent either man has the right to impose his creative vision upon others – Toscana through placing taboo images in public spaces, and Higgins by using Eliza in his own dream of ‘filling up the deepest gulf that separates class from class and soul from soul.’
- Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice – think about how Portia, in Act 4 Scene 1, takes power into her own hands and controls Shylock’s fate, presumably altering the course of justice in the Venetian courtroom.
- Angela Carter’s The Bloody Chamber – by repositioning women in stories that were traditionally male-centric, Carter is, in a creative way, revealing the way women’s voices have been traditionally silenced or marginalised in the past.
- Ismail Kadere’s Broken April – you could explore the presentation of an individual character such as Bessian, Diana or Gjorg himself in the context of wider social structures in Albania.
- John Keats’ Selected Poetry – no one would dispute that Keats is an especially creative individual and Keats’ poems also explore the importance of art in society, not least in Ode on a Grecian Urn.